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ExplosionDesMathematiques

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L'explosion des mathématiques

 
Contents - To download one article, click on the title !
 
Foreword - Mireille Martin-Deschamps et Patrick Le Tallec (format pdf 35 ko)
 
Predicting the weather - Claude Basdevant (format pdf 200 ko)
 
Forecasting the weather or the climate is not an easy matter. It requires modelling of numerous natural phenomena and interaction between several sciences, ranging from mathematics to biology, via computer science, physics and chemistry.
 
What lies behind mobile phones - Daniel Krob (format pdf 512 ko)
 
The mobile telephone is now a relatively common object. Who hasn't ever seen or used one ? But few have given a thought to the science and technology behind it.
 
Encrypting and decrypting: secure communications - Jean-Louis Nicolas (format pdf 169 ko)
 
The modern world, where telecommunications occupy a central place, cryptography has a major stake. It has also became a complex science, which cannot do without high-level mathematicians.
 
Managing complexity - Pierre Perrier (format pdf 232 ko)
 
Whether it concerns manoeuvring a plane, or the mechanical resistance of a complicated structure, or managing automobile traffic, progress in all these areas doesn't come from purely technological inventions alone. It also involves abstract research, like the mathematical theory of control..
 
The bellows theorem - Étienne Ghys (format pdf 192 ko)
 
A ruler, a pencil, cardboard, scissors and glue: one doesn't need more to give a mathematician pleasure, and present interesting problems whose study often turns out to be useful in other areas, in totally unexpected ways.
 
Finding a cancer-causing gene - Bernard Prum (format pdf 104 ko)
 
The development of modern biology, and of molecular genetics in particular, requires new mathematical tools. Example of statistics and its role in finding a gene related to breast cancer.
 
Wavelets for compressing images - Stéphane Mallat (format pdf 122 ko)
 
Whether they are stored digitally in computer memories, or they travel over the Internet, images take up a lot of space. Fortunately, it is possible to ``condense'' them without changing the quality!
 
Preventing waves from making noise - Daniel Bouche (format pdf 165 ko)
 
How to escape being detected by radar? What is the optimal shape of a sound-proof wall? Can one improve the quality of sonographic images? To get a satisfactory answer, these questions require a thorough theoretical analysis.
 
When art rhymes with math - Francine Delmer (format pdf 286 ko)
 
Scientists are not the only ones to be inspired by mathematics. Many artists have drawn the subject of some of their works from it. The converse is also sometimes true, as in the case of perspective, where art has led to geometrical theories.
 
From DNA to knot theory - Nguyen Cam Chi et Hoang Ngoc Minh (format pdf 188 ko)
 
The biological activity of a DNA molecule depends mainly on the way it is arranged in space and the way in which it is twisted - things which fall within the province of the mathematical theory of knots.
 
The philosopher and the mathematician - Pierre Cassou-Noguès (format pdf 344 ko)
 
Throughout their history, mathematics and philosophy have had a close and enigmatic relationship. It would be necessary to go as far back as Plato in ancient Greece and Descartes at the dawn of modern times. Let us cite here two great figures of the 20th century, David Hilbert and Edmund Husserl.
 
How to rationalise auction sales ? - Jean-Jacques Laffont (format pdf 327 ko)
 
Thanks to the Internet in particular, auctions have become widespread. Modelling these sales processes makes it possible to determine their rules and the optimal strategies for using them.
 
The econometrics of selling wines and bonds - Philippe Février et Michael Visser (format pdf 181 ko)
 
Great wines and Treasury bonds are sold at auction. But which type of auction should one adopt ? To find that out, one has to supplement the general modelling of auctions by econometric studies.
 
Puzzles for airline companies - Jean-Christophe Culioli (format pdf 124 ko)
 
Problems of organisation and planning faced by an airline company are similar to those met with in other sectors of industry. Operations research, with which tens of thousands of mathematicians and engineers in the world concern themselves, tries to solve these problems as well as possible.
 
The geometry of 11 dimensions to understand Genesis ? - Maurice Mashaal (format pdf 239 ko)
 
Physicists have aspired for a long time to building a theory which would cover all the elementary particles and all their interactions. Since about twenty years ago, they have a trail that is promising. But to explore it, they must navigate in highly abstract spaces where even mathematicians had not yet ventured.
 
Internet: modelling its traffic for managing it better - François Baccelli (format pdf 298 ko)
 
Specialists in communication networks try to understand the statistical properties of the data traffic which they have to route. The management and the development of these networks depend upon it.
 
Financial options pricing - Elyès Jouini (format pdf 143 ko)
 
The financial world fixes the price of options by means of formulas which have been obtained thanks to relatively recent workin mathematics. The search for better formulas continues... and small-time speculators are not the only ones who are interested!
 
Communicating without errors: error-correcting codes - Gilles Lachaud (format pdf 202 ko)
 
For detecting and correcting the inevitable errors which creep in during digital information transmission, specialists in coding theory make use of abstract methods which arise from algebra or geometry.
 
Reconstruction of surfaces - Jean-Daniel Boissonnat (format pdf 176 ko)
 
Reconstructing a surface from the knowledge of only some of its points: a problem that one comes across often, be it in geological exploration, in recording archaeological remains, or in medical or industrial imaging.
 
Mathematicians in France and in the world - Jean-Pierre Bourguignon (format pdf 244 ko)
 
At the end of the 19th century, there were very few ``geometers'', as mathematicians were formerly called. In one century, their numbers have augmented considerably. Today, they are facing profound changes in their discipline.